Wednesday, January 15, 2020

How the English language influenced African literature Essay

The use of the English language plays a crucial and dominant role in African literature. In contemporary African literature the use of English is often the key element for success as an African writer. This enables them to express their views across a larger area of today’s global world. However writing in English instead of their native tongues may come at a high price for these African writers. By them replacing their native languages with English could eventually lead to the eradication of their native tongues. The aim of this essay is to address the following key elements which influence the role of English in African literature. Colonization played a leading role in placing English at the forefront of African literature. English can be viewed as a ‘necessary evil’, especially by most of those African writers who did not inherit the English language. The English language forms the core of African literature, throughout most parts of Africa. This is often evident in our everyday experiences. For example, the majority of the educational institutes in Africa, use English as a medium for engaging in learning activities. English has long been the language of politics. Furthermore, in the media and in literature, English is clearly the dominant language. In order for us to gain an understanding as to why English is the dominate language in African literature we need to address the main factor which has placed English at the centre of African literature. The effects of colonialism had the most influence over this situation. In 1884, Europe divided the African countries into separate colonies and ‘shaped’ the African nations under their colonial powers. These separate colonies were classified according to the languages of Europe, English- speaking, Portuguese-speaking and French-speaking African countries. Colonialism controlled and limited the use of African languages by imposing negative and stereotypical views upon these African languages. This is clearly stated by S.N.Dlamini.. Another interpretation of the use of the Zulu language comes from its  association with illiteracy and ignorance. This interpretation was historic, and a typical example of how British colonisation and a British education system impacted on language use. With colonialism, African languages were downgraded, and the language of the colonising country, English became the language of commerce, education and an instrument with which to measure knowledge(Dlamini:2005:16) The use of English in African literature can most definitely be viewed as a necessary evil. On the one hand, the English language plays a fundamental part in many aspects of communication. For instance, those African writers who choose to write in English can express their opinions, views, experiences and the like, across a more global scale. On the other hand, it’s a different scenario altogether for those whom have had to acquire English as their second language. Obviously, people would generally feel more comfortable writing in their home language as opposed to an additional language. Chinua Achebe wrote: â€Å"Those of us who have inherited the English language may not be in a position to appreciate the value of the inheritance. Or we may go on resenting it because it came as part of a package deal which included many other items of doubtful value and the positive atrocity of racial arrogance and prejudice which may yet set the world on fire. But let us not in rejecting evil throw out the good with it.† (Achebe;2005;31) There is no use in ignoring the fact that most literature will continue to be written in English. There are many reasons as to why it would not be feasible to banish the use of European languages in Africa, in replace of an African language. Firstly, this would affect the levels of communication within Africa and in relation with the rest of the world, as there are very few individuals in other parts of the world that understand one of the African languages. Secondly, this process would entail many expenses and complications. For  instance, the changing of educational institutions into ones with and African language as a medium for learning. ‘†¦those African writers who have chosen to write in English or French are not unpatriotic smart Alecs with an eye on the main chance-outside their own countries. They are the by-products of the same process that made the new nation states of Africa’ (Achebe;2005;31) Clearly, there are many advantages of writing in a first world language. Firstly, this would cultivate Africa to be a part of the global network of communication. For instance, this would allow African writers to express their views across a broader scale of the globe. Mazizi Kunene stated, â€Å"African literature is no literature unless it is used as a vehicle of ideas.† Furthermore, the use of a ‘universal’ language helps to destroy the barriers between different social or cultural groups by creating the link of communication. Secondly, with the ability to communicate, this allows these different social and cultural groups to interact, thus creating recognition for these different cultural groups. Charles Taylor creates a clear indication of the importance of recognition in his article The politics of recognition. The demand for recognition in multiculturalism is given urgency by the supposed links between recognition and identity, where this multiculturalism designates something like a persons understanding of who they are, of their fundamental defining characteristics as a human being. The thesis is that our identity is partly shaped by recognition or its absence, often by the misrecognition of others, and so a person or a group of people can suffer real damage, real distortion , if the people or society around them then mirror back to them a confining or demeaning or contemptible picture of themselves. Nonrecognition or misrecognition can inflict harm, can be a form of oppression, imprisoning someone in a false, distorted, and reduced mode of being. In other words, communication helps to facilitate the recognition of groups,  which is especially crucial for those smaller cultural groups from being oppressed and viewed as inferior, due to people’s ignorance. On the other hand, one needs to address the obstacles facing the African writer. For those who have acquired English as their second language, often feel that they are incapable of expressing themselves in the correct context when writing in English. Some feel they have to first think in their native tongue and then translate it into English and in the process their writing looses its meaning. Achebe stated in his article, ‘The English language and the African writer’ â€Å"The real question is not whether Africans could write in English but whether they ought to. Is it right that a man should abandon his mother-tongue for someone else’s? It looks like a dreadful betrayal and produces a guilty feeling. But for me there is no other choice. I have been given this language and I intend to use it.† (Achebe,C:2005:33) Firstly, in order to retain ones self identity, the sense of who you are and where you came from, one must first define themselves in relation to their language and their environment. This should be a crucial element, before adopting other languages. Ngugi wa Thiongo stated, â€Å"The choice of language and the use to which language is put is central to a peoples definition of themselves in relation to their natural and social environment, indeed in relation to the entire universe.(2005:25) Hopefully there will still be writers who choose to write in their native languages, to ensure the existence and the development of African literature. Evidently as the above evaluation states, African literature will continue to be dominated by the use of the English language. Although this is the reality to date, those Africans should not do so at the expense of abandoning their mother-tongue.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Hello My Name Is Austin Mcgrath And I Am Going To Talk

Hello my name is Austin McGrath and i am going to talk about the different perspectives that leonardo da vinci s and Tintoretto took when creating there different versions of the last supper and as to why they did . Leonardo da vinci s spent 3 years creating his version of the last supper, he started in 1495 and finished it in 1498, and 100 years later Jacopo Tintoretto spent 2 years creating his version he started in 1592 and finished it in 1594. Both paintings depict the biblical story of the last supper where jesus hosted a supper before he had to go back to heaven after his resurrection, and At this supper he turned water into wine and broke a single piece of bread apart to feed the men at the table. The different perspectives and†¦show more content†¦In the high renaissance, the power and influence on religion was still as high as it was in the dark ages, but unlike the dark ages religion in the renaissance was taught and looked at from a humanistic point of view. For example people looked up to it for morals and philosophy more than a form of worship and a complete way of life and absolute truth, and because of that change many paintings regarding to religion or any other painting painted at that time had some sort of religious and or humanistic meaning behind it. Know to talk about the contents of the paintings themself and the different perspectives of the painting. In the last supper leonardo decided to make the scene in the painting very realistic, with not a lot of dramatic imagery. In the background of the painting is some landscape outside of a doorway and windows. There is a long table with 13 people sitting at it, and in the center of the painting sits jesus at the long table with his arms outstretched and on the left of jesus in order are groups. The groups consist of, Group 1 Judas is taken aback, and next to him there is peter holding a knife and looks angry, and john swoons, and then in Group 2 Bartholomew, james minor, and Andrew are all surprised. Then on jesus right in order Group 3 consisted ofShow MoreRelatedProject Mgmt296381 Words   |  1186 Pagesmanagement: the managerial process / Erik W. Larson, Clifford F. Gray. —5th ed. p. cm. —(The McGraw-Hill/Irwin series, operations and decision sciences) Grayâ€⠄¢s name appears first on the earlier editions. Includes index. ISBN-13: 978-0-07-340334-2 (alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-07-340334-2 (alk. paper) 1. Project management. 2. Time management. 3. Risk management. I. Gray, Clifford F. II. Gray, Clifford F. Project management. III. Title. HD69.P75G72 2011 658.4904—dc22 2009054318 About the Authors

Saturday, December 21, 2019

The Theory Of Social Life - 1581 Words

In order to interpret social life we have utilized three primary theoretical perspectives. In this paper I will summarize all three primary perspectives by identifying the role, figures and key concepts related to each of these three theories. I will then identify which of these three theories I find most useful in studying sociology today and then I will explain the rationale behind my selection. Finally, I will provide my own argument to the debate as whether the purpose of social research should be only to advance the understanding of human behavior or to investigate/reform harmful social arrangements. The first theory I will cover is symbolic interactionism. The symbolic interaction perspective, also called symbolic interactionism,†¦show more content†¦Interactionist seem to focus on the subject aspects of social life. People interpret one another’s behavior and it is these interpretations that form the social bond. These interpretations are called the â€Å"defi nition of the situation† (Crossman). For example, why would young people smoke cigarettes even when medical evidence points to the dangers of doing so? Studies find that teenagers are well informed about the risks of tobacco, but they also think that smoking is cool, that they themselves will be safe from harm, and that smoking projects a positive image to their peers (Crossman). The symbolic meaning of smoking overrides the actual facts regarding smoking and risk. â€Å"Some fundamental aspects of our social experience and identities, like race and gender, can be understood through the symbolic interactionist lens† (Crossman). Having no biological bases at all, both race and gender are social constructs that function based on what we believe to be true about people, given what they look like. We tend to use socially constructed meanings of race and gender to help us decide who we interact with, how to do so, and to help us determine, sometimes inaccurately, the meaning of a person s words or actions (Crossman). â€Å"In the cases of race and gender, this perspective would not account for social forces like systemic racism or gender discrimination, which strongly influence what we believe race and gender mean† (Crossman). â€Å"One reason for this focus

Friday, December 13, 2019

Key influences on the emergence of symbolic interactionism Free Essays

Idealism Scottish Moralist Functional Psychology Darning’s Evolution Pragmatism German Idealism: it is if the view that humans create the worlds they inhabit. That is human being occupy a world of our own making. It further argues that forms and perception have no existence prior to their objects. We will write a custom essay sample on Key influences on the emergence of symbolic interactionism or any similar topic only for you Order Now That is we create form and perception as we create symbolic material object. They believe that meaning is formed out of interaction. Scottish Moralist: It focuses on how the mind and self are social products. One of the theorists is Adams smith who talked extensively about role taking. Functional Psychology: Functional psychology argues that communication is the process which makes society. They are of the view that language makes the society possible because only human possess language they are active beings who do not passively respond to stimuli. Darning’s Evolution: It argues that there Is novelty to human activity that perpetually defies both determinism and confident predictability. The evolution concept of process and emergence bestowed on some ideas such as behavior is a result of an adaptation to environment. Pragmatism: pragmatism are of the view that human beings are active creative agent and not passive. They argue that the world people live In Is the one they had In hand that Is shaped by them. They further argue that subjectivity does not exist prior to experience but it rather flows from It. How to cite Key influences on the emergence of symbolic interactionism, Papers

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Compare And Contrast Essay Example For Students

Compare And Contrast Essay A good education is an important part of ones life. To achieve a good education, one should attend both high school and college. Although some people think high school has a lot in common with college, I find them to be very different. After graduating from high school I enrolled into college and noticed that there are many differences between them. A few of these differences include the attitude and responsibilities of the teachers and students and the amount of work given to the students.To begin with, there are many ways in which the attitudes of the teachers in high school differ from the attitudes of the teachers in college. In high school my teachers seemed to be stricter and have more rules for the students to follow. The teachers were also responsible for making sure each student obeyed these rules to the fullest extent and carried out disciplinary actions for those who did not obey them. One example in which a teacher has taken on a disciplinary action was when a student was tardy or skipped their scheduled class; the students usually received detention along with an F for the day in the class the skipped or was tardy too. Although attendance is also required in college and many enforce it; some teachers do not. While attending college I have noticed that there are teachers who feel it is the students responsibility to come to class. If a student chooses to skip that class; the teacher rarely says anything to the student but the student usually gets an F for the day in which they skipped. Some college teachers believe the students should be mature enough to make their own decision on whether to attend class or not and leave it to them to make that decision. While in high school I also noticed teachers had strict rules to obey given to them by a higher authority. These rules include no eating or drinking in class and sometimes no chewing gum. However, in college students are allowed to chew gum and teachers often allow the students to bring snacks or dr inks into the classroom if they are careful with them. Another way which I noticed the attitude of the teachers differ is that in high school the teachers seemed to be more responsible for what they said and had to make sure they did not curse or say something that could offend a student. If a high school teacher offended a student the student could complain to the principal and the teacher often had to take responsibility. In contrast, college teachers do not have this responsibility and are able to say almost anything they want regardless of whether it offends someone. It is common in college to have a teacher curse during their lecture or even towards a student when they are angry. Furthermore, the attitude of students in high school and college also differ greatly in ways such as their dedication to schoolwork. While attending college I notice more students have the attitude that they are in college because they want to be. In contrast, when I attended high school I noticed many students had the attitude that they only attended class because they had to by law or because their parents insisted they attend. In high school I noticed that many students goofed off during class and did not take the courses seriously; however, in college many students have the attitude that they are there to learn and give their instructors their undivided attention. Another difference between high school and college is in high school many classes had a class clown whereas in college there is rarely a class clown and many students are there only to learn. While in high school I also noticed students tended to sleep more during class and even carried on their own conversations with o ther classmates during lectures. In college several students also carry on side conversations and sleep during class, but I find fewer students in college do this than in high school. .u7878b9445d3ddcb849b11ffa52597956 , .u7878b9445d3ddcb849b11ffa52597956 .postImageUrl , .u7878b9445d3ddcb849b11ffa52597956 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u7878b9445d3ddcb849b11ffa52597956 , .u7878b9445d3ddcb849b11ffa52597956:hover , .u7878b9445d3ddcb849b11ffa52597956:visited , .u7878b9445d3ddcb849b11ffa52597956:active { border:0!important; } .u7878b9445d3ddcb849b11ffa52597956 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u7878b9445d3ddcb849b11ffa52597956 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u7878b9445d3ddcb849b11ffa52597956:active , .u7878b9445d3ddcb849b11ffa52597956:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u7878b9445d3ddcb849b11ffa52597956 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u7878b9445d3ddcb849b11ffa52597956 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u7878b9445d3ddcb849b11ffa52597956 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u7878b9445d3ddcb849b11ffa52597956 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u7878b9445d3ddcb849b11ffa52597956:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u7878b9445d3ddcb849b11ffa52597956 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u7878b9445d3ddcb849b11ffa52597956 .u7878b9445d3ddcb849b11ffa52597956-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u7878b9445d3ddcb849b11ffa52597956:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Reconstruction Was it truly beneficial EssayThe third contrast between high school and college is the workload that is given to the students by the teachers. In high school I could go days with out having homework or studying; however, in college I was told by one of my professors; a college student is expected to study for three hours a week per a credit. In high school a student usually is given a single homework assignment or task per class; a college student may be given several tasks or homework assignments to do at the same time for one class. For example, as a college student I have been given several pages to read from a text and a 700 word paper due all the next c lass day, whereas in high school I was usually only given one of those assignments at a time. The material in college is also much hardier and more detailed than that in high school. For example, in both high school and college general biology students often learn about the make up of a cell; but in high school, a simple make up of the cells major parts is usually all that is expected for the students to learn. In college; however, the knowledge of a more complex make up of a cell is usually expected for the students to know. High school and college are very important in the educational processes because often one can not get a good job without a well-developed education. This education frequently comes from having a high school diploma and a college degree. Although high school and college carry some of the same features; they also have several differences between them. Some of the ways which high school and college differ include the teachers attitude and responsibilities, the students attitude and responsibilities and the amount of work given to the students. High school and college play important parts in the lives of many people and although they may be thought as similar they differ in several ways. Bibliography:

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Acute Stress Reaction and Acute Stress Disorder

Introduction Acute Stress response, also termed as psychological shock or mental shock, is psychosomatic state of affairs resulting to reactions to a frightening or hurtful situation. However, the term is frequently confused with another related condition called acute stress disorder. It should be noted that the two are different in a number of ways.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Acute Stress Reaction and Acute Stress Disorder specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Walter Cannon explained acute stress reaction as a condition whereby animals respond to threats, with general discharge of sympathetic nervous system. Psychology scholars developed the theory in subsequent years and arrived at a conclusion that it is a general adaptation syndrome, which controls stress reactions among all vertebrates, as well as other organisms. It therefore follows that the reaction of the body towards a stress is linked to specific physi ological acts in the sympathetic nervous system. This could be either direct response or indirect response, which would be through the discharge of adrenaline or at least noradrenalin (Jeffrey, Everly, 1996). This would be discharged from the medulla of the adrenal glands. Stress reaction is a complex process because catecholamine hormones are in charge of facilitating instant physical responses by simply triggering augmented heart rate, as well as breathing. When this happens, blood vessels are constricted hence facilitating spontaneous or intuitive behaviors that would be associated to combat or in some cases escape. On the other hand, acute stress disorder is the outcome of a traumatic state of affairs that an individual experiences. It also occurs when an individual comes across an event that might lead him or her to experience severe, disconcerting or unpredicted fear, anxiety or pain. Such pain might perhaps threaten an individual leading to serious injury, perception of a se rious harm or even his or her own death or death of another person. From the definition, acute stress reaction is different from acute stress disorder.Advertising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In fact, acute stress reaction is a variant to post-traumatic stress disorder. In other words, it is the reaction of the body or the mind towards the deep feelings, which might be either perceived or real feelings. In this case, an individual feels helpless (Bryant, 2000). This paper will attempt to differentiate between acute stress response and acute stress disorder. The paper will go a notch higher to discuss the symptoms, treatment strategies, including spiritual and professional treatment, and finally the impact of the symptoms to human behavior. Differences between Acute Stress Disorder and Acute Stress Reaction The conditions of stress differ more as regards to symptoms. For acute stress reaction , the victim feels an initial state of shock with a number of limitations in terms of consciousness and contraction of attention. Moreover, an individual develops a unique condition that makes him or unable to comprehend the body stimuli, which might actually disorient an individual. When this happens, an individual tends to withdraw from the rest of societal members. In this regard, an individual would develop weird behavior including confrontation and over activity, nervousness, defective decision-making, mystification, lack of involvement, and misery. In addition, signs of panic are also witnessed such as tachycardia, fret, flushing. These symptoms are differentiated from those of acute stress disorder because they appear within few hours of the stressful event. However, the symptoms disappear within two to three days (Creamer, O’Donnell, Pattison, 2004). Partial or complete loss of memory may precede these symptoms. For acute stress disorder, instantaneous and clear conn ection, which might be temporal impact of an outstanding stressor, must exist. The symptoms occur after a few hours or it might even take a few days. In other words, the signs of the disorder do not take place immediately as is the case with acute stress reaction condition.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Acute Stress Reaction and Acute Stress Disorder specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some of the symptoms of acute stress disorder include deadening, impassiveness, detribalization, depersonalization or dissociative forgetfulness, continual re-experiencing of the incident by such ways as reflections, imaginings, and flashbacks. The victim keeps on evading any inspiration that reminds him or her of the stressful episode (Lambert, 2004). The symptoms are easy to differentiate from those of acute stress reaction because during this time, victims must show other symptoms such as nervousness and considerable impairment in at least one critical area of functioning such as the nervous system. Symptoms last for at least 2 days, and utmost 4 weeks, and takes place within 4 weeks of the horrifying incident. Diagnostic Criteria for Acute Stress Reaction When an individual is suspected to be suffering from stress after being exposed to a traumatic event, some of the symptoms are to be observed first before declaring that an individual suffers from Acute Stress Disorder. One of the steps to be undertaken by an expert is to evaluate whether an individual actually underwent a stressful event that would lead to trauma. This would include assessing whether the event threatened the life of the victim or the life of another person but was witnessed by the victim. It would also involve emotional injury whereby the reputation of the individual was maliciously destroyed. Another thing to observe is an individual’s response to the stressful event. For instance, did the victim respond with fear and horror or did the victim feel helpless. The second thing to do is to check whether an individual experienced some of the symptoms as mentioned below. The victim could have experienced a subjective sense of numbing, aloofness or could have gone through emotional receptiveness. The patient could have experienced a reduction in consciousness as regards to his or her environment such as being in a state of shock.Advertising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Serialization could be another sign of acute stress disorder. The fourth symptom to be aware of is depersonalization. Finally, the patient could as well undergo dissociative amnesia, which is associated with lack of a significant aspect of trauma. It should be noted that the patient should experience at least three or more of the above symptoms to be declared sick (Johnson, 1997). The third aspect associated with diagnosis is the aspect of re-experienced traumatic event. The event should recur in one of the following ways: repeated imagery, reflections, imaginings, false impressions, flashback incidents, or a sense of reliving the incident. The fourth guideline pertains to marking the avoidance of stimuli in patients that would probably stimulate memories of the trauma such as reflections, feelings, chats, actions, places and the community. In case the patient portrays some of these then he or she would probably be suffering from acute stress disorder. The fifth guideline is related to noting the symptoms of nervousness or increased stimulation. This would include sleeping, irritability, poor attentiveness, hyperactivity, embellished amazing response and motor restiveness. The sixth diagnostic guideline relates to observing the social actions of the patient. The patient would develop some of the actions that are not friendly to his or her relatives, family members or even co-workers. The individual might fail to accomplish some of the basic tasks, even those that he or she used to execute before the occurrence of the event. An individual would perhaps require assistance in simple activities. Another guideline is to observe the time that is, monitor the time that the individual would start behaving differently. It is supposed to take at least two days and utmost four weeks. The last guideline is related to assessing the psychological status of the individual. Usually, the individual is supposed to be disturbed. The disturbances are not a result of drugs. Treatm ent of Acute Stress Disorders Before recommending treatment of acute stress disorders, the caregiver needs to undertake a number of assessments. For instance, he or she needs to consider the type of the event that caused the condition, as well as the available resources. Recommendation for treatment would depend on the traumatic event for instance victims of sexual assault are given different treatment from those who underwent a natural disaster such as floods. Furthermore, the caregiver is to assess the damage caused by the traumatic event. It is recommended that those victims going through large-scale catastrophes are to be evaluated to determine the triage of individuals at danger of psychiatric sequelae. Moreover, the available resources would help the caregiver determine the type of treatment. In case the victim is in danger, the caregiver is to address individual needs such as clinical care, rest nutrition and avoidance of injury related aspects. Moreover, the caregiver is to take into consideration factors such as symptom rigorousness, comorbid physical or psychiatric analysis, desperate and murderous ideation, strategies, or objective level of functioning and accessible support methods. The psychologist is to consider the patient’s individual security, the capacity to care for self sufficiently, capacity to provide consistent response to the psychiatrist, and enthusiasm to take part in treatment and capacity to belief in clinicians and the treatment procedure. While undertaking or recommending treatment, the caregiver needs to observe some issues that might affect the treatment process. In this regard, the caregiver should carry out assessment and treatment with a lot of seriousness implying that treatment should be undertaken in a serene, safe environment. This would probably necessitate development of trust on the side of the patient. In addition, some patients might be having some fears as regards to re-exposure to the traumatic event. The ca regiver needs to acknowledge such fears and encourage the patient to take heart. In some instances, treatment might turn out to be a threatening or even an overly intrusive process. Therefore, the caregiver should tackle the concerns of the patient and make sure that the treatment preferences are suitable to the patient. Treatment Strategies There are two forms of treatment for acute stress disorders. They include psychopharmacology and psychotherapy. The strategies are employed under different circumstances. Both will be discussed in detail. Regarding psychopharmacology, experts claim that there is no ideal pharmacological intervention to acute stress disorder. However, a number of drugs have been suggested to cure the disorder. Effects of acute stress disorder can be minimized through the intake of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The drug is recommended because of a few reasons. One of the reasons is that it ameliorate the three PTSD signs, including re-experienci ng of the event, forestalling and hyperactive arousal. The drug is known to treat psychiatric disorders that tend to be frequently comorbid in relation to PTSD, such as despair, fear disorder, social fear and obsessive-compulsive disarray. Experts prefer the drug strategy because it has the capability of reducing clinical signs, including suicidal, impetuous and destructive actions. Such symptoms usually complicate the management process of PTSD. Some practitioners prefer using anticonvulsant tablets such as divalproex, carbamazepine, topiramate and lamotrigine. The drug is preferred over SSRIs because it cures specifically the signs of re-experiencing, which threatens the mental health of the victim. In case the SSRIs are found ineffective in eradicating comorbid psychotic disorders, health experts would resort to the use of second-generation antipsychotic medications such as olanzapine and quitipine. The drug is effective in terms of controlling the symptoms. For rare complication s such as the emergence of extraordinary symptoms, patients are given specialized treatment using adrenergic agonists and adrenergic blockers (Kessler, Sonnega, Bromet, Hughes, Nelson, 1995). The most common strategy employed by doctors and other medical personnel in the treatment of acute stress disorders is the psychotherapy treatment. The method is more effective as compared to other strategies because it aims at restoring the patient back to his or her normal status without consumption of substances. One of the methods of psychotherapy treatment is the cognitive and behavior rehabilitation. The technique aims at eradicating appraisal processes by employing repeated exposure practice or by utilizing some techniques aiming at providing information to the victim without undertaking repeated exposure technique. In some parts of the world, caregivers recommend the use of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing technique (EMDR). In this technique, the caregiver aims at helping the victim to shift attention from the traumatizing event to something else that would make him or her more comfortable. Even though some practitioners view the technique as ineffective, proper utilization of the method has proven to be efficient, just as other techniques of cognitive therapy. Another treatment strategy employs psychodynamic and psychotherapy method (Koocher, Erin, Krista, 2001). The strategy focuses on the importance of the trauma to the patient as regards to psychological conflicts. The method analyzes the effects of the trauma to the self-esteem of the patient. Effects to Human Life An acute stress disorder is known to affect an individual’s social interaction in society since it interferes with an individual’s behavior, societal development and the ecosystem. In a disastrous situation for example, an individual is believed to act irrationally meaning people act out of panic and fear. Some individuals might be unable to think clearly, while others might make uninformed decisions. A section of the victims is usually tempted to move in masses, which brings about humanitarian crises. However, studies show that flight panic occurs rarely (Mills, Edmondson, Park, 2007). Some patents tend to ignore the instructions of crisis workers after realizing that their properties have been destroyed. Such patients give rescue workers a difficult time since crisis workers are forced to engage in hazardous searches, which puts their lives in danger (Van der Kolk, McFarlane, Weisaeth, 1996.). Antisocial behavior should not be ruled out after the occurrence of a disaster. Antisocial behavior in this sense constitutes three major aspects, one being the aspect of looting. Some of the victims, especially those from the low social class would claim to assist in the rescue mission whereas their ultimate goal is to loot. Some victims may perhaps engage in acts of violence to protect their interests (Mahoney, Chandra, Gambheera, De Silva, Suveendran , 2006). The last aspect of antisocial behavior as regards to acute stress disorder is related to price gauging. On development, acute stress disorders are known to retard economic, social and political development of an affected family. Studies show that patients suffering from acute stress disorder owing to natural disasters tend to neglect the social well-being of families. In this case, disastrous events increase the poverty rates and deprive the community of its valued resources that are utilized in fulfilling daily needs. A study conducted in the US confirmed that a disaster reduces the growth of an affected region by 0.8 percent. Disasters have been accused of causing social inequalities in societies. The earthquakes in China affected those who had already suffered from societal injustices in terms of ownership of property. The victims suffered from income fluctuations and had little access to monetary services such as loans and mortgages. After the earthquake, the victims we re even affected more (Dattilio, Freeman, 1994). They had difficulties in acquiring some of the basic goods and their standards of living depreciated further. The rich were not affected so much in terms of capital because a majority of them had insured their properties. Risk Factors One of the risk factors includes severity of the exposure. Those victims who could have been involved directly to the disaster tend to suffer more as opposed to those who could have been affected indirectly. Such victims tend to take more time in terms of recovering from the disastrous event. Another risk fact is the gender of the victim. Studies show that women and girls tend to be affected more as opposed to men and boys (Breslau, 1990). Furthermore, those with families are affected more, given the fact that they have to provide for their families in case they are breadwinners. Another specific risk factor to the Sichuan earthquake is the region. China is considered a third world country meaning that it does not have proper measures for handling traumatizing events. One of the resilience factors is coping confidence. Many victims tend to behave as if the event is too much for them and they cannot recover easily. This affects the healing process. Those victims full of confidence usually recover faster as compared to those who believe that the situation is bearable for them. Communities that do not embrace social support tend to suffer from recovery. Social support augments the individual’s well-being and restricts distress after any disastrous event (Slaby, 1998). Conclusion Acute stress disorders affect the living standards of individuals in various ways. For instance, it interferes with the normal functioning of the brain. Patients suffering from the disorder tend to make uninformed decisions that might put their lives in danger. Before declaring that an individual suffers from acute stress disorder, a number of guidelines are to be observed. In other words, the symptoms associated with acute stress disorder are to be evaluated and monitored by the caregiver closely. Treatment strategies depend on the severity of the situation and the nature of the stressful event. Therefore, the caregiver is to subscribe treatment based on the effects of the disorder and the nature of the traumatizing event. In terms of the effects of the disease, it manifests in many ways. 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(1998). Risk Management with Suicidal Patients. New York: Guilford,. Van der Kolk, C., McFarlane, A., L. Weisaeth, H. (1996.). Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society. New York: Guilford Press. This essay on Acute Stress Reaction and Acute Stress Disorder was written and submitted by user Kenny Dorsey to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.